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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, the official title, since the ist of January 1801, of the political unity composed of England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland. "Great Britain" was employed as a formal designation from the time of the union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland in 1707. Although the name (which apparently had its origin in Britannia Major, the name given to the island to distinguish it from Britannia Minor or Brittany) had, in earlier times, been often used both by English and by foreign writers, especially for rhetorical and poetical purposes, it was not till after the accession of James I. that it became a recognized part of the royal style. Its adoption was due to the king himself, who was anxious to give expression to the fact that he was sovereign of the undivided island, and not only of England or Scotland. As early as 1559 the Scottish congregation had formally proposed 1 See also Britain; British Empire; England; Ireland; Scotland; Wales; &C.

Year.

Revenue.

Expenditure.

Proportion

of per head.

per head.

s. d.

1861

70,283,674

72,792,059

2 8 io

1871

69,945,220

69,548,539

2 4 5

1881

81,872,354

80,938,990

2 7 I

1891

89,489,112

87,732,855

2 6 2

1901

130,384,684

183,592,264

3 2 10

1902

142,997,999

195,522,213

3 12 II

1903

151, 551, 698

184,483, 708 .

3 I I 6

1904

141,545,597

146,961,136

3 6 2

1905

143,370,404

141,956,497

3 6 4

1906

143,977,575

140,51 1 ,955

3 5 I I

1907

156,537,690

151,812,094

3 6 5

1908

151,578,295

152,292,395

3 5 0

1909

131,696,456

157,944,611

2 18 5

2 See Peerage. 3 See Representation and Parliament.

In separate articles throughout this Encyclopaedia the main subjects of interest in connexion with British institutions are fully dealt with; and it is only necessary here to give such details as are needed to supplement those given under the subjectheading. See Agriculture; Navy (also Ship and Ship-BUILDING); Education; English Finance; English History; Civil Ser Vice; National Debt; Police; Poor Law; &C. A separate section, however, is devoted to the army, the constitution of which in 1910 is described; the history is given under Army.

National Debt (q.v.).-The table on the preceding page shows the position of the national debt at quinquennial intervals during 1891-1910.

Area

A

sq. m.

Population.

1891.

1901.

England and Wales. .

58,324

29,002,525

32,527,843

Scotland

29,796

4, 02 5, 6 47

4,472,103

Ireland

32,531

4,704,750

4,458,775

Islands in the British seas .

302

147,842

150,370

Year.

England and

Wales.

Scotland.

Ireland.

United

Kingdom.

(a)

(b)

(a)

(b)

(a)

(b)

(a)

(b)

1896

2 4 2 ,7 6 4

1 5 . 7

30,270

14-2

23,055

10-2

296,089

15.0

1901

259,400

15 -9

31,387

14.0

22,564

10'2

3 1 3,35 1

15 1

1906

26 9,734

1 5' 6

33, 12 3

14.0

22 ,557

10 '3

3 2 5,4 1 4

14'9

1909

260,2J9

14.6

30,092

12 . 3

22,769

10'4

313,120

13.9

Year.

English and Welsh.

Scottish.

Irish.

Total.

1895

112,538

18,294

54,349

185,181

1898

90,679

15,570

34,395

140,644

1900

102,448

20,472

45,905

168,825

1904

175,733

37,445

58,285

271,435

1905

170,408

41,510

50,159

262,077

1906

219,765

53,162

52,210

325,137

Area and Population.-The United Kingdom has an area of 120,651 sq. m., and at the census of 1891 had a population of 37,732,922 and in 1901 of 41,458,721. If the islands in British seas are included, the area is increased to 120,953 sq. m., and the population to 41,609,091. The main divisions are as follows: Vital Statistics.-The following table institutes a comparison between the birth-rates per thousand of the population in the United Kingdom and certain other countries, at intervals (so far as possible) of five years, adding the figures for other years in specific years when there was a marked fluctuation: The number of marriages (a) and the proportion of persons married per thousand of the population (b) are thus shown: Emigration.-The following table shows the number of passengers, distinguishing English and Welsh, Scottish and Irish, who left the United Kingdom for extra-European countries in 1895, 1900 and 1905, and the total for 1909, and in certain other years in which the numbers show marked fluctuations: In 1909 the total number to British dominions was 163,594 and the total number to other extra-European countries was 125,167.

1881.

1886.

1891.

1896.

1901.

1905,

1906.

Russia in Europe

Hungary

Austria

Germany

Japan. .. ... .

Holland

Denmark .

Switzerland

UNITED KINGDOM ... .

47.8

42'9

37.5

37.0

25.6

35.o

32.2

29.8

32.5

(1882,

(1882,

5 0.4)

38.9)

4 6.5

45.6

38.1

37.0

27.3

34.6

32.4

27.8

31.5

(1889,

(1890,

3 0.2)

29.2)

48.8

42'3

38.3

37.0

26.7

. 33'7

31.0

28.2

30.4

(1892,

29.6)

49'7

40.5

38.0

36'3

30.0

32.7

30.5

28.1

29.0

47'9

37.8

36'6

35.7

32.7

32'3

29.7

29.1

28 o

-

-

33'7

33.0

30.6

-

-

27.4

-

-

36.0

-

-

-

30.4

28.5

26.8

England

Scotland

Ireland

33'9

33'7

24.5

32.8

32'9

23.2

(1890,

(1890,

(1890,

30.2)

30.4)

22.3)

31.4

31.2

23 I

(18 94,

(1892,

2 9.9)

22.5)

29.6

3 0 4

23.7

28.5

29'5

22'7

-

-

-

27.1

27.9

23.6

Norway

Sweden

Belgium .

France

30.6

29.1

31 8

24.9

31.2

29.8

29.9

23'9

30.9

28.3

30.0

22.6

30.2

27.2

29.0

22.5

29.6

27.0

29.4

22.0

-

-

-

-

26.5

25.7

25.7

20.6

Occupations.-The following table shows the occupations of the people (excluding children under ten years of age) as The number of births in the United Kingdom in 1909 was 1,146,118, giving a rate per thousand of 25 5. * Not including Finland.

1881.

1886.

1891.

1896.

1901.

1905, 1906.

Denmark.. .

18.3

18.1

20.0

15.7

15.8

- 13.5

Norway. .

17.0

16.2

17.5

15.1

14.9

- 13.7

Sweden.. .

17.7

16.6

16.8

15.6

16. 1

- 14.4

Holland.. .

21.5

21.8

20.7

17'2

17.2

- 14.8

UNITED KINGDOM.

18.7

19.2

20.0

16.9

17. 1

- 15.6

England.. .

18.9

19.5

20.2

17.1

16.9

- 15'4

Scotland.. .

19.3

18.9

20.7

16.6

17.9

- 16.0

Ireland.. .

17.5

17.8

18.4

16.7

17.8

- 17.0

Belgium. .

21 2

21.3

21.2

17.5

17.2

- 16.4

Switzerland. .

22.4

20.7

20 6

17.8

18 o

17.9 -

Germany.. .

25.5

26.2

23.4

20 8

20.7

19.8 -

France. .. .

22.0

22.5

22.9

20.0

20. 1

- 19.9

Japan. .. .

18.7

24.4

21.0

21.4

20.4

22.0 -

Hungary. .

34'4

3 1.7

33.1

28.9

25-4

- 24'8

Austria.. .

30.5

29'5

28 I

26.3

24.0

25.0 -

Russia in Europe*.

33.2

31.2

34'6

32.8

32 1

- -

The death-rate is similarly treated: * Not including Finland.

The deaths in the United Kingdom in 1909 numbered 667,765, the rate per thousand being 14.8.

England and Wales.

Scotland.

Ireland.

Professional .

804,427

101,061

131,035

Domestic .

1,994,197

201,230

219,418

Commercial .

1,858,454

245,715

97,889

Agricultural

1,152,495

237,311

876,062

Industrial. .

7,534,994

1,197,495

639,413

Percentage to total area

Great Britain.

Ireland.

of area-

1890.

1909.

1890.

1909.

Cultivated

57.7

56.6

73.1

70.3

Under grain crops. .

14 I

12.4

7'3

6 i

Under green crops.. .

5'8

5.4

5'8

5'0

Under grasses and other crops .

8.5

7'9

5'9

11-2

In permanent pasture.. .

28.2

3 0.2

53.4

43'1

Description of Minerals.

1900.

1909.

Value, 1909.

Tons.

Tons.

Coal. .. .. .

225,181,300

263,774,312

106,274,900

Iron ore. .. .

14,025,208

1 4,979,979

3,689,777

Clay and shale.. .

14,049,694

14,067,810

1,718,056

Sandstone. .. .

5,019,874

4,600,084

1,339,106

Slate.

585,859

402,184

1,007,013

Limestone (not chalk) .

11 ,9 0 5,477

11,811,122

1,226,967

Igneous rocks. .

4,634,301

6,283,297

1,235,046

Oil shale... .

2,282,221

2,967,057

815,937

Tin ore (dressed)

6,800

8,289

617,376

Salt

1,861,347

1,822,744

548,896

distinguished in five great orders, according to the census of 1901: Agriculture.-The following table illustrates broadly the difference in the position of agriculture in Great Britain and in Ireland: Minerals and Mining.-The mineral production of the United Kingdom reached a total value in 1890 of £100,802,657 and in 1909 of £119,394,486, with a maximum during that period of £160,605,154 in 1900 and a minimum of £ 73,024,066 in 1893. These figures include pig-iron produced from foreign ores. About 73% represents the value of the coal output. The figures for the more important minerals are as follows: Gold ore, manganese ore and uranium ore are produced in small quantities, and the list of minerals worked in the United Kingdom also includes chalk, lead, alum, phosphate of lime, chert and flint, gravel and sand, zinc ore, gypsum, arsenic, copper, barytes, wolfram and strontium sulphate.

Description of

Metal.

1900.

1909.

-

Quantity.

Quantity.

Value (average

market price).

Iron.. .

4,666,942 tons

4,802,163 tons

15,559,253

Tin. .

4,268 „

5,199 ,,

695,546

Lead. .. .

24,364 ,,

22,463 ,,

298,945

Zinc.. .

9,066 „

3,818 „

87,146

Copper.. .

765 ,,

435 ,,

27,162

Gold.. .

14,004 oZ.

1,210' OZ.

4,400

Silver.. .

190,850 „

142,146 „

14,030

Metals were obtained from the ores as follows: The total number of persons employed in and about all the mines of the United Kingdom in 1901 was 839,178, and in 1909 I,126,372.

Coal Mines, &c.

Metalliferous

Mines (a).

Quarries (b).

England. .

606,206

19,561

60,725

Wales. .

137,124

7,333

17,277

Scotland .

114,294

974

12,187

Ireland. .

749

733

4,464

The workers were thus distributed between the three kingdoms and the principality in 1905: The total figures given above include (a) 550 and (b) 166 workers in the Isle of Man; and the figures quoted for production include that of the isle.

1900.

1909.

England.

Tons.

Tons.

Cumberland

2,022327

2,309,370

Derby

15,243,031

16,869,347

Durham

34,800,719

41,240,612

Gloucester

1,578,386

1,486,526

Lancashire

24,842,208

23,705,387

Leicester

2,106,343

2,661,606

Monmouth

9,818,829

13,204,357

Northumberland

11,514,521

14,013,135

Nottingham

8,626,177

11,106,702

Somerset

1,046, 792

1,140,818

Stafford

14,222,743

13,517,101

Warwick. .. ... .

2,957,490

4,447,978

York `Vales.. .

28,247,249

35,896,623

Carmarthen

1,333,880

1,950,429

Denbigh. .. ... .

2,447,092

2,556,612

Glamorgan

27,686,758

34,461,631

The production of coal in Great Britain, though marked by, fluctuation, has, on the whole, largely increased, and in 1901 the output was 42% greater than that of 1881. The maximum quantity extracted in any one year between 1890 and 1910 was 267,830,962 tons in 1907, and the minimum 164,325,795 in 1893. The maximum estimated value, however, was £121,6 52,596 for the 225,181,300 tons raised in 1900; the value in 1907 being £120,527,378.

In the chief coal-producing counties of England and Wales the quantity raised in 1900 and in 1909 will be found in the table at the foot of preceding column.

Thus it appears that of the coal raised in England the county of Durham contributes about 22%, Yorkshire 17%, Lancashire 16%, Stafford and Derbyshire each about 9%, and Northumberland 7%; while of the coal raised in Wales 85% is contributed by the county of Glamorgan; and that the coal production of England and Wales together constitutes, in quantity and value, 85% of the whole production of the United Kingdom.

Year.

Tons.

Year.

Tons.

1890

30,442,839

1900

46,098,228

18 93

29,031,955

1905

49,359,272

1895

33, 1 0 1 ,45 2

1909

65,694,267

The export of coal greatly increased on the whole during the period 1890-1909. The following table shows this; the figures for 1893 are given as the lowest during the period. The tonnage of coke and patent fuel is included in the totals: The chief receiving countries are, in order, Germany, France, Italy, Sweden, Spain, Russian Empire, Denmark, Egypt, Holland, Argentina, Norway and Brazil.

The annual output of iron ore in the United Kingdom has on the whole decreased since 1882. In that year it reached a maximum of 18,031,957 tons; it then fell off to 13,098,341 tons in 1887, rose in the two years following to nearly 15,000,000, fell to little over 11,000,000 in 1892-1893, rose fairly steadily to 14,461,330 in 1899, stood in 1900 at 14,028,208 tons of a value of £4224,400, and then showed a further fall and rise, until in 1905 the tonnage was 14,590,703, and the value £ 3,482,184.

1900.

1909.

Tons.

Tons.

England. ... .

13,072,118

14,176,658

Cumberland 1. ...

1,103,430

1,246,228

Lancashire 1. .. ...

630,361

312,367

Leicester

750,708

514,896

Lincoln. .. .. .

1,924,898

2,037,363

Northampton

1,622,539

2,875,659

Stafford 2

1,084,797

902,565

York. .. .. .

5,550,677

6,234,589

Wales

7,418

38,043

Scotland 2. .. ..

849,031

697,276

Ireland. .. ... .

99,641

68,002

The iron ore raised in the various countries, and in the most productive counties, is here shown: The number of furnaces in blast (fractions showing the proportion of the year furnaces were in blast) was: in England 298162, Wales 19,; Scotland 852, total 403 i '. The total number of existing furnaces in 1900 was: in England 456, Wales 42, Scotland 106; total 604; so that 33% of the number stood unused. In 1905 furnaces in blast numbered: England 244, Wales 13, Scotland 87A z; total 345A z; and those existing: in England 412, Wales 31, Scotland tor; total 544; and the percentage unused was thus 36.

In 1888 the imports of iron ore amounted to 3,562,071 tons, in 1898 to 5,468,396 tons, in 1899 to 7,054,578 tons, in 1900 to 6,297,953 tons, in 1901 to 5,548,888 tons and in 1909 to 6,361,571 tons, of which the bulk was imported from Spain. The amount of pig-iron obtained found its minimum, during the period 1890-1910, of 6,976,990 tons in 1893, and its maximum of 10,183,860 in 1906, and in 1905 the quantity produced from foreign ores (4,847,899 tons) for the first time exceeded that produced from British ores (4,760,187).

The quantity of lead ore produced within the United Kingdom has decreased. It is now less than one-half of the output of about 1877, and the value has decreased more than proportionately. In the period1890-1908the maxi- Lead. mum annual production of metallic lead from British ore was 33,590 tons in 1890, valued at £449,8 2 6; the production fluctuated somewhat, but generally fell, to the minimum of 17,704 tons in 1902 (value £198,875). The most productive counties are Flint, Durham and Derby; the ore obtained in the Isle of Man is increased in value by the silver it contains.

These counties supply the richest ore in the United Kingdom.

In these cases the greater proportion of ore is from mines also producing coal.

The annual output of tin ore, which in 1878 amounted to 1 5, 0 45 tons, valued at £530,737, fell to 12,898 tons in 1881, though the value in that year rose to £697,444.

During the years1882-1892the average output was over 14,000 tons, and its average value about £770,000, but in 1893 a decline began in the output (not however accompanied closely by a decline in the value), slightly relieved about 1905.

Year.

Tin Ore.

Value.

Tons.

1893

13,689

637,053

1900

6,800

523,604

1905

7,201

574,183

1909

5,193

617,376

Tin ore is obtained almost exclusively in Cornwall.

Like others of the less important mining industries, copper mining in the United Kingdom has declined. In 1881 the. output of ore amounted to 52,556 tons, in 1891 to 9158 tons, in 18 93 to 557 6 tons, in 1905 to 7153 tons, valued at £32,696 and yielding 716 tons of metal by smelting. The total tonnage of ore included 5757 tons from England (chiefly from Cornwall) and 1146 from Ireland (Wicklow, &c.). Copper precipitate is taken from water pumped up from old copper mines on Parys Mountain in Anglesey.

Zinc ore is obtained chiefly from mines in Cumberland, Wales and the Isle of Man. In 1881 the output reached 35,527 tons, valued at £110,043; in 1891 the output was only Zinc. 22,216 tons, but its value was £113,445. In 1897 the quantity was 19,278 tons, and the value £69,134; but in 1898 the price had risen so that the output of 23,552 tons was worth £117,784. In 1900 the output of 24,675 tons was worth £97,606; and in 1905 that of 23,909 tons was worth £139,806.

During the period1890-1905gold mines were worked continuously in Merionethshire. Notices of the discovery of gold elsewhere (as in the Forest of Dean, Argyllshire and Ireland) have appeared from time to time.

Year.

Ore.

Gold.

Value.

Tons.

Oz.

18 9 0

575

206

675

1891

14,117

4,008

13,700

18 93

4,489

2,309

8,691

1895

13,266

6,600

18,520

18 9 8

703

395

1,229

1900

20,802

14,004

52,147

1902

29,953

4,181

14,570

1904

23,203

19,655

73,925

1905

15,981

5,797

21,222

1908

-

915

3,311

The principal fluctuations in production were as follows: It should be noted also that from imported cupreous iron pyrites, copper, gold and silver are extracted at some fifteen metal extraction works in Great Britain. From 386,858 tons of burnt ore in 1900 there were obtained 13,925 tons of copper, 1 777 oz. of gold and 3 0 9,4 86 oz. of silver; and in 1905 the figures were: ore, 402,863 tons; copper, 14,502 tons; gold, 1850 oz.; silver, 322,291 oz.

Year.

Imported.

Exported.

Retained.

lb

lb

lb

1890

1,793,495,200

214,641,840

1,578,853,360

1893

1,416,780,064

224,621,488

1,192,158,576

18 95

1,757,042,672

203,284,592

1,553,758,080

1898

2,128,548,352

203,072,464

1,925,475,888

1900

1,760,206,672

215,747,168

1,544,459,504

1905

2,203,595,520

283,177,888

1,920,417,632

1907

2,386,901,104

330,352,064

2,056,549,040

1909

2,188,761,456

268,633,456

1,920,128,000

Textile Industries.-The most important of the textile industries of Great Britain is cotton manufacture. The quantities Cotton. of raw cotton imported, exported and retained for Cot consumption for various years during the period1890-1910were as follows: During the same period the minimum and maximum amount of raw cotton (in lb) imported into the United Kingdom from the principal countries whence it is exported was as follows: United States of America (1893), 1, 0 55, 8 55,3 60; (1898), 1,805,353,424; Egypt (1890), 181,266,176; (1907), 4 2 3, 0 5 2 ,44 8; British possessions in the East Indies (1898), 27,349,728; (1890), 2 3 8 ,74 6 ,7 0 4; (1909), 75,621,168;75,621,168; Brazil (1899), 5,4 6 4,59 2; (1906), 54,362,000; Peru (1891), 6, 1 75,344; (1909), 2 4,4 1 3,§4 8.8. In 1905 there were imported 7,941,920 lb from Chile (only 195,328 in 1909); 6,033,104 lb from Canada (this also fluctuates greatly; 1,801,072 in 1909); 1,241,408 lb from British West Africa (4,985,232 in 1909); 1,126,720 lb from the British West Indies and Guiana (3,022,208 in 1908).

According to the census returns of 1901 there were 546,065 persons employed in cotton factories, 199,920 male and 346,145 female. Of the total number of workpeople, 529,131 were employed in England and Wales, 14,805 in Scotland and 212 in Ireland. In 1907 the total had risen to 576,820 (217,742 males and 359,078 females).

Year.

Imports.

Exports of

imported Wool.

Retained.

lb

lb

lb

1890

633,028,131

340,712,303

292,315,828

18 95

775,379,063

404,935,226

370,443,837

1898

699,555,048

283,317,748

416,237,300

1900

558,950,528

196,207,261

362,743,267

1905

620,350,885

277,864,215

342,486,670

1907

764,286,625

313,519,282

450,767,343

1909

808,710,087

390,695,182

418,014,905

The extent of the woollen and worsted manufactures of the United Kingdom is indicated by the following table showing the imports and exports of wool and the quantity retained for use in various years (1890-19ò5):--- During the same period the minimum and maximum amount of wool (in lb) imported into the United Kingdom was as follows: Australia (1904), 220,483,961; (1895), 417,163,078; New Zealand (1890), 95, 6 3 2 ,59 8; (1909), 1 7 6 ,457, 1 5 0; British possessions in South Africa (1900), 32,219,369; (1909), 115,896,598; South America (1890), 11,173,692; (1908), 78,938,157; British possessions in the East Indies (1901), 24,069,571; (1909), 56,238,633; France (1890), 10, 8 73,7 88; (1902), 27,770,790; Turkish Empire (1908), 5,705,671; (1897), 25,727,462.

In the woollen and worsted industries 239,954 persons were employed according to the census of 1901, of whom 99,425 were males and 140,529 females. Of the total number 209,700 were employed in England and Wales, 24,906 in Scotland and 5348 in Ireland.

England

United Kingdom.

and

Scotland.

Ireland.

Total.

Males.

Females.

Wales.

Flax

4,493

2 3,57 o

71,464

29,226

70,301

99,527

Hemp, jute,

&c. .

2,750

39,200

639

11,618

30,971

42,589

Silk

34,847

2,424

209

11,058

26,422

37,480

1-Iosiery

4 8 ,374

11,957

611

15,067

45, 8 75

60,942

The numbers of persons employed in the other principal textile industries in 1901 was as follows: Commerce.-British commerce received an enormous development after the first quarter of the 19th century. In 1826 the aggregate value of the imports into and exports from the United Kingdom amounted to no more than £88,758,678; while the total rose to £110,559,538 in 1836 and to £205,625,831 in 1846. In 1856 the aggregate of imports and exports had risen to £311,764,507, in 1866 to £534,195,956 and in 1876 to £ 6 3 1 ,931,3 0 5. Thus the commercial transactions of the United Kingdom with foreign states and British colonies increased more than sevenfold in the course of fifty years.

Country.

1890.

1895.

1900.

1905.

1909.

I. - BRITISH POSSESSIONS -

£

£

£

£

India and Ceylon Imports

Exports

37,856,598

38,254,769

31,076,761

27,519,909

32,861,217

32,885,147

40540,341

45,796,432

40,995,633

46,617,909

Straits Settlements,Malaysia Imports

6,412,865

5,404,887

8,092,057

7,222,215

8,948,582

and Hong Kong. Exports

5

5,766,059

4,077,436

6,162,526

7,162,908

7,455,726

Africa. Imports

) Exports

11,290,022

10,744,904

12,522,366

13,325,089

9,703,086

16,725,092

14,755,353

21,338,292

13,130.724

20,181,408

Canada and Newfoundland

5 Imports

12,444,489

13,400,570

22,240,325

26,204,205

27,674,340

.

Exports

8,272,743

6,594,903

9,659,238

14,267,967

18,750,970

West Indies, Bermudas,Hon- Imports

2,992,472

2,831,343

2,483,648

2,717,318

2,969,772

duras and Guiana.. Exports

4,262,669

3,230,189

2,954,477

3,324,665

3,777,244

Australia S Imports

A

20,992,185

24,954,779

23,800,820

26,968,977

32,655,709

? Exports

281:374507:473005

15,867,979

23,545,565

19,476,463

27,207,430

New Zealand. 5 Imports

Exports

3,705,428

8,383,058

3,443,688

11,615,881

5,899,292

13,391,222

6,994,806

17,730,556

8,081,422

Other } Imports

t Exports

1,720,583

3,826,012

1,952,431

3,095,184

2,287,537

4,252,072

3,731,132

4,351,367

2,800,939

4,246,362

II. FOREIGN COUNTRIES -

France. S Imports

7 Exports

44,828,148

24,710,803

47,470,583

20,324,998

53,618,656

25,877,453

53,072,900

23,232,663

50,690,785

31,515,320

Germany Imports

Exports

26,073,331

30,516,281

26,992,559

32,736,651

31,181,667

38,542,790

35,799,758

42,742,300

40,115,450

47,168,852

Belgium Imports

B Exports

17,383,776

13,594,966

17,545,169

11,934,653

23,502,603

14,846,307

27,751,288

14,818,923

29,217,560

19,284,791

Holland Imports

) Exports

25,900,924

28,419,944

31,381,023

35,481,059

37,371,702

16,445,992

11,272,258

14,931,090

14516,887

16,303,884

Denmark, Faeroe, Iceland, SImports

7,753,389

9,799,328

13,187,757

15,606,991

19,427,483

Greenland. .. Exports

2,928,006

3,135,122

4724,121

4,609,671

5,705,415

Norway ! Imports

-

3,831,727

5,756,018

5,954,870

6,574,319

Exports

2,532,050

3,910,982

3,712,532

3,835,436

Sweden. ., Imports

S

Exports

-

-

8,784,256

4,036,729

20,635,060

6,495,223

9,827,993

6,016,332

9,245,303

7,114,071

Imports

Austria-Hungary Exports

1,728,337

1,694,318

1,221,783

2,149,552

1,375,245

3,157,716

1,488,604

2,603,223

1,208,499

4,333,269

Rumania Imports

R

)

4,447,159

2,118,505

1,396,639

1689,513

3,395,474

' Exports

2,350,497

944,034

616,287

1,305,658

1,749,996

Greece } Imports

1,962,798

1,241,406

2,227,212

1,328,234

1,613,174

1 Exports

1,235,126

860,193

1,104,196

1,251,642

1,513,744

Italy Imports

3,093,918

3,132,720

3417790

3,324,595

3,634,073

.

Exports

8,523,209

6,211,337

9444498

9,787,306

13,274,764

Imports

Spain Exports

P

12,508,533

5,702,80

57 4

11,314,518

4,052,806

15,882,346

6,333,857

13,858,631

4,841,774

13,362,959

5,352,017

51mports

Portugal Exports

2,942,194

2,612,638

2,491,926

1,865,973

3,241,367

2,529,305

2,929,634

2,826,257

2,912,994

2,777,201

Russian Empire Imports

) Exports

23,750,868

8,846,054

24,736,919

10,686,333

21,983,952

16,360,475

33,366,234

14,884,050

36,897,746

28,325,844

Turkey Imports

Exports

8,368,8511

7,340,8681

5,630,240

5,566,187

5,657,627

5,372,956

5,491,443

6,979,147

5,085,435

7,789,432

Imports

1,024,993

1,143,382

1,540,526

1,860,313

4,232,716

Japan Exports

4,187,373

4,772,829

9,933,925

9,796,900

8,618,821

Chi } Imports

China

4,830,850 2

3343,865 22

2,359,821

2,340,3a63

3,725,502

? Exports

6,763,221 2

5363,536 2

5,634,313

13,298,828 3

8,558,275

Netherlands - India } Imports

t Exports

1,223,037

1,675,054

874,313

1,988,479

287,454

2,881,601

2,129,479

3,558,562

2,436,518

3,768,264

} Imports

8,368,851

9,524,507

12,585,578

14,976,188

19,872,288

Egypt

. (Exports

3,459,991

3,414,556

6,159,468

8,069,668

8,142,325

U.S.A.

97,283,349

86,548,860

138,789,261

115,573,051

118,269,777

t Exports

46,340,012

44,067,703

37,343,955

47,282,088

59,254,166

Mexico andCentral American Imports

1,863,284

1,443,345

1,144,590

2,138,574

2,595,356

States Exports

s

3,050,051

3,035,097

3,149,652

3,022,074

3,179,577

Brazil 51Imports

Exports

4,350,675

7,795,073

3,614,155

7,643,739

5,946,547

6,156,600

8,109,208

6,916,617

11,271,890

8,809,226

Argentina } Imports

1 Exports

4,129,802

8,530,427

9,084,497

5,480,848

13,080,466

7,438,238

25,034,325

13,383,835

32,528,446

19,202,496

Chile 51mports

3,473,348

3,436,142

4,828,371

6,068,031

6,607,415

Exports

3,365,824

3,454,332

3,535,736

4,782,382

5,054,144

Other countries in Asia Imports

1 Exports

376,969

516,846

344,895

720,350

373,344

684,440

611,096

699,556

1 ,043,280

1,214,041

Africa 51mports

Exports

2,345,843

3,262,462

1,683,319

3,052,023

2,503,823

4,686,727

2,901,281

6,063,114

4,538,518

7,783,508

South America. Imports

Exports

2,080,466

5,674,325

2,437,294

4,489,592

2,355,802

4,088,731

3,897,595

5,129,351

5,657,201

6,137,748

Other countries Imports

3,206,713

3,447,034

3,190,888

6,289,947

4,260,790

5 Exports

6,605,220

3901,551

6,370,943

8,352,264

7,440,065

Total for British possessionsImports

100,279,852

100,405,592

113,074,557

134,530,683

146,908,244

' Exports

94,522,469

76,138,896

102,083,109

122,712,920

136,318,471

Total for foreign countries } Imports

3 2 4,53 0 ,7 8 3

321,038,151

413,434,242

437,151,191

477,796,713

t Exports

2 33,7 2 9, 6 49

209,693,511

252,290,645

284,883,607

333,206,695

Grand total S Imports

Exports

420,691,997

328,252,118

416,689,658

285,832,407

523,075,163

354,373,754

565,019,917

407,596,527

624,704,957

469,525,166

1895.

1900.

1905.

1909.

£

£

£

Cotton yarn and manufactures .

6 3,74 6 ,4 6 3

6 9,75 0, 2 79

92,010,985

93,444,799

Iron and steel and manufactures .

19,428,383 2

31,6 2 3,353 2

3 1, 826 43 8

38,192,142

Woollen yarn and manufactures

2 9, 0 94,5 68

24259,7 66

29,916,807

30,917,807

Coal

14,600,326

36,409,614

2 4, 8 59 12 9

37,129,978

Machinery. .. ... .

15,150,522

19.619.784

23,260,326

28,057,643

Chemicals. ... .

11 ,4 6 3,3 0 4

1 3, 1 54,344

1 4,53 6, 8 57.J

16,783,019

Textiles (not cotton or wool) .

11,986,718

12,191,069

1 3, 20 4, 8 99

12,441,525

Metal manufactures (not iron)

5,048,588

6.473,197

8,920,533

8,708,945

Clothing. .. .. .

5,615,594

6,499,086

6,021,242

9,824,125

Leather and leather goods. .

3,833,980

3,875,683

5,660,494

4,242,356

Ships. .. .. .. .

-

8,587,710

5,431,298

5,927,114

An important fact in connexion with the foreign commerce of the United Kingdom is that there has been a steady increase in imports, but there has been no corresponding steady increase in exports of British produce and manufactures. Many industries, which formerly were mainly in British hands, have been developed on the continent of Europe, in America, and to some extent in the East. The movement began in 1872. Up to that time the exports of British home produce had kept on increasing with the imports, although at a lesser rate, and far inferior in aggregate value; but a change took place in the latter year. While the imports continued their upward course, gradually rising from £354,693,624 in 1872 to £375, 1 54,7 0 3 in 1876, the exports of British produce fell from £256,257,347 in 1872 to £ 200,639,204 in 1876. The decline in exports, regular and steady throughout the period, and with a tendency to become more pronounced every year, affected all the principal articles of British Wool. The value of the chief articles and groups of export of home produce are similarly shown: The proportion of imports and exports per head of population of the United Kingdom was: - As regards fluctuations not revealed by the above figures, it may be mentioned that the highest total figures for any one year during the period covered are those for 1907, viz. imports £645,807,942; exports £517,977,167. As to minima within the period, the lowest totals for British possessions were: imports £91,851,534 in 1893, and exports, the figure quoted for 1895; for foreign countries, imports £312,836,644 in 1893, and exports £195,133,239 in 1894; grand totals, imports £ 4 0 4 ,688,178 in 1893, and exports £273,785,867 in 1894. It may be added that the maximal import figures for France within the period are those of 1906 (£53,871,661), for Germany those of 1909, and for the United States those of 1901 (£141,015,465). For exports to the United States the figures for 1909 were highest, to France those of 1907 (£33,5 0 7,544) and to Germany those of 1907 (£56,729,988).

1895.

1900.

1905.

1909.

£

£

£

£

Grain and flour

53,077,981

62,992,082

70,057,290

83,107,421

Meat

33,334,171

4 6 ,7 $2 ,579

49,43 1 ,74 8

47,623,428

Other principal articles of food and

drink

Butter. .. .. .. .

14,235,230

1 7,45 0 ,435

21,586,622

22,424,962

Sugar. .. .. ... .

17,684,413

1 9, 2 5 6 ,439

1 9,47 1, 811

21,691, 894

Tea. .. .. .. .

10,242,999

10,686,910

9,302,713

11,617,031

Wine

5,448,088

5,192,909

4,072,199

3,746,489

Coffee

3,778,305

2,544,726

2,578,327

2,075,516

Fish (preserved)

2,289,260

2,895,330

2,493,876

2,509,573

Cocoa and chocolate. .. .

1,610,483

2,398,248

2,227,141

903,464

Principal fruits

Apples. .. .. .. .

960,273

1,224,657

2,065,193

2,007,911

Oranges. .. .. .

1,925,415

2,120,790

1,949,496

2,522,491

Bananas. .. .. .

-

548,956

1,770,256

1,752,190

Tobacco. .. ... .

3,353,916

4,799,417

3,721,920

4986,663

Raw materials

Cotton

30,522,016

41,117,308

52,370,878

60,295,049

Wool

28,494,249

2 4, 0 73,9 1 7

26, 6 4 8 ,737

35,041,766

Oils, &c.

18,497,573

2 3,5 6 4, 6 44

23,600,927

31,039,883

Wood and timber.. .

16,372,181

2 7, 8 75,9 1 3

2 3, 2 74, 020

23,591,579

Textile materials excluding cotton

and wool. .. ... .

11,378,608

11,553,114

14,511,978

12,127,707

Caoutchouc. .. .. .

3,760,178

6,986,133

9, 6 43, 1 53

14,138,204

Hides and skins

7,360,070

8,465,660

8,084,793

11,617,756

Metallic ores excluding iron. .

4,575,929

5,575,272

7,610,990

8,327,193

Iron ore, &c.. ... .

3,027,196

5,750,947

5,525,575

5,076,131

Manufactured articles

Yarns and textile fabrics .

-

-

39,688,418

29,651,658

Metal, excluding iron and steel .

11,196,315

21,844,683

21,840,696

24,346,328

Leather. .. ... .

11,035,870

11,823,132

11,037,983

11,617,130

Chemicals. .

8,714,360

8,628,279

9,624,638

10,596,593

Iron and steel (not machinery)

-

7,314,696

8 ,5 8 9,4 0 5

7,971,594

Paper. .. .. ... .

2,845,730

4,412,440

5,256,065

5,647,437

Machinery. .. ... .

-

3,475,887

4,537,871

4,438,336

The following table presents the value of the chief groups and articles of importation into the United Kingdom: - Certain omissions are necessary in this table owing to alterations in classification of the returns.

1 Adapted from the Statistical Abstract for the United Kingdom, where it is specified that the value of new ships and boats, with their machinery, was not included in exports before 1899.

411 to £23,020,719; iron and steel from £35,99 6, 16 7 to £20,737,410; coals from £10,442,321 to £8,904,463; machinery from £8,201,112 to £ 7,210,426; and linen manufactures from £10,956,761 to £7,070,149. The decline during the four years, it will be seen, was greatest in all textile manufactures, and least in coal and machinery.

The table' on p. 602 shows the subsequent movement in value of imports from other countries to the United Kingdom, and of exports to other countries from the United Kingdom, at quinquennial intervals; bullion and specie being excluded.

For the purpose of showing the relative importance of British and Irish ports falling below the list, the following figures may be quoted for 1909 only: Methil, entered 824,375 tons, cleared 1,105,048 tons; Harwich, entered 792,980, cleared 776,595; Grangemouth, entered 988,007, cleared 1,064,217; Burntisland, entered 609,722, cleared 815,507; Bristol, entered858,933, cleared 615,266; Goole, entered 815,177, cleared 817,226; Hartlepool, entered 934, 8 3 6, cleared 730,141; Newhaven, entered 385,313, cleared 376,083; Folkestone, entered 364,524, cleared 359,697; Belfast, entered 490,51 3, cleared 165,670; Borrowstounness (Bo'ness), entered 3 01 ,549, cleared 292,194; Dublin, entered 219,081, cleared 80,868; Cork, entered 146,724, cleared 7413; Maryport and Workington, entered 118,388, cleared 67,494 The figures for Plymouth have included vessels which call "off" the port to embark passengers, &c., by tender only since 1907; for 1909 they were: entered, 1,455,605; cleared, 1,292,244.

The table at the commencement of page 605 shows the total tonnage of vessels entered from and cleared to British possessions and foreign countries at ports in the United Kingdom, and also the nationality of vessels under British and the principal foreign flags. Out of the following totals steam vessels had an aggregate tonnage of 30,604,578 entered and 31,080,481 cleared in 1890, and 64,327,508 entered and 64,968,655 cleared in 1909. The total tonnage of vessels entered and cleared coastwise was as follows: (1890), 47,73 8, 612 entered, Owing to an alteration in classification these figures are not strictly comparable with those for 1905.

Year.

Total Imports.

Exports of British

Produce.

£

s.

d.

£

s. d.

1890

11

4

6

7

0

7

1895

10

12

6

5

1 5

4

1900

12

14

3

7

1

6

1905

13

I

5

7

12

7

1906

13

18

5

8

12

0

1907

14

12

6

9

1 3

3

1908

13

6

3

8

9

4

1909

13

17

7

8

8

1

home produce just enumerated. The value of the cotton manufactures exported sank from L80,164,155 in 1872 to L67,641,268 in 1876; woollen fabrics from £38,493, The tables on p. 604 show the value of unregistered imports of golc_ _ nd silver bullion and specie from British possessions and from foreign countries into the United Kingdom, specifying the most important countries individually..

Table of contents

Shipping

The table at foot of p. 604 shows the tonnage of vessels entered from and cleared to British possessions and foreign countries at the principal ports of the United Kingdom.

42,317,876, cleared; (1895), 54,3 0 4,7 0 3 entered, 47,263,791 cleared; (1900), 55,828,569 entered, 54,425,666 cleared; (1905), 60,066,919 entered, 58,670,971 cleared; (1909), 60,566,043 entered, 60,060,979 cleared.

Year.

Sailing Vessels.

Steam Vessels.

Number.

Gross Tonnage.

Number.

Gross Tonnage.

1890

14,181

3,055,136

7,410

8,095,370

1895

12,617

3,040,194

8,386

9,952,211

7900

10,773

2,247,228

9,209

11,816,_.4

1905

10,059

1,796,826

10,552

14,883,594

7909

9,392

1,407,469

11,797

16,994,732

The number and gross tonnage of the registered sailing and steam vessels belonging to the United Kingdom were as follows at the end of each of the years named: These figures show not only that steamers have been rapidly taking the place of sailing vessels, but also that large steamers are preferred to small, their average tonnage having increased from 1092 tons in 1895 to 1440 in 1909.

Railways.-The first ordinary roads deserving the name of highways were made about 1660, and canal-building began in 1 Newcastle, North Shields, South Shields.

Blyth was included with North Shields till 1897. 'Swansea included Port Talbot till 1904.

the middle of the following century; but though roads and canals aided materially in raising the commercial and industrial activity of the nation, their fostering agency was very slight compared with that of railways, of which England is the birthplace. The first line of railway for regular passenger service, that from Stockton to Darlington, 14 m. in length, was opened on the 27th of September 1825. The first really important railway was the line from Manchester to Liverpool, opened on the 15th of September 1830, when William Huskisson, M.P., was accidentally killed. It took three years to get the bill for the London-Birmingham railway, which was passed at last in the session of 1833, obtaining the royal assent on the 8th of May. The first sod of the great line was cut at Chalk Farm, London, on the 1st of June 1834. Enormous engineering difficulties had to be overcome, originating not so much from the nature of the ground as from intense public prejudice against the new mode of locomotion. It took over four years to construct the railway from London to Birmingham, at a cost exceeding £4,000,000. Even friends of the railway presaged that such outlay could not by any possibility be remunerative; but the contrary became evident from the moment the line was opened on the 17th of September 1838. All the great railway systems of England sprang into existence within less than ten years after the opening of the London-Birmingham line. Out of this railway grew one of the largest companies, the London & North-Western; while the most extensive system as regards mileage, the Great Western, originated in a line from Paddington, London, to Bristol, for which an act of parliament was obtained in 1835, and which was opened in 1841. In 1836 a bill passed the legislature erecting the "Great North of England" Railway Company, from which was developed the North-Eastern system. A few years later other acts were passed, sanctioning the "Midland Counties" and the "North Midland" lines,. from which the present Midland system grew.

The total length of railways conveying passengers in the United Kingdom at the end of the year 1825 was 40 m., constructed at a cost of £ 120,000. Five years later, at the end of 1830, there were not more than 95 m., built at a cost of £840,925, but at the end of 1835 there were293 m., costingL5,648, 53 1. Thus, in the first five years of railway construction, from 18 25 to 1830, the mileage doubled; while in the second five years, from 1830 to 1835, it trebled. It quintupled in the next five-yearly period, till the end of 1840,;when the total length of miles of railway in the kingdom had come to be 1435, built at a cost of £41,391,634, as represented by the paid-up capital of the various companies. The next five years saw nearly another doubling of length of lines, for at the end of 1845 there were 2441 m. of railway created by a paid-up capital of £88,481,376.

1 8 90.

1895.

1900.

1905.

1909.

From British possessions

5,368,424

17,61 ,466

11 ,35 ,59 1

38,567,895

40,44212

South Africa. .

1,876,677

8,353,913

378,626

27,286,374

32,912,428

India

443,079

1,929,590

3,637,978

6,850,360

2,170,957

Australia .

1,398,627

5,324,498

6,182,718

3,440,037

2,613,002

Foreign countries

18,199,625

7$,390,863

74,840,282

4,949,335

14,227,617

Total .

23,568,049

36,009,329

26,190,873

43,5 1 7, 2 3 0

54,691,829

Silver.

1890.

1895.

7900.

1905.

7909.

From British possessions .

J50,094

282,269

264,676

412,756

667,619

Foreign countries

10,035,565

10,384,063

13,057,624

12,579,258

1 1,147,270

United States of America

4,057,709

8,082,925

11,459,612

9,784,828

9,971,396

Total

10,385,659

10,666,332

13,322,300

12,992,014

11,814,889

1890.

1895.

1900.

1905.

7909.

Entered

London. Cleared

Tons.

7,7 08 ,7 0 5

Tons.

8 ,435, 6 7 6

Tons.

9,580,854

Tons.

10,814,115

Tons.

11,605,698

Liverpool and Bir- Entered

5,772,062

5,7 82 ,35 1

6,110,325

5,59 8 ,34 1

7,479, 0 0 8

6,001,563

7,913,115

7,806,844

8,622,316

7,747,994

kenhead Cleared

5, 1 59,45 0

4, 88 3, 1 99

5,77 8, 11 4

6,932,687

6,593,094

Cardiff Entered

3, 1 73, 6 99

3,739, 8 5 6

5, 1 3 2 ,5 2 3

4,337,7 20

5,771,476

Cleared

5, 6 4 1 ,5 11

6 ,5 00 ,5 10

7, 6 3 6 ,7 1 7

7.47 6, 8 79

8,888,756

Tyne Ports 1 Entered

Cleared

3,401,216

5,010,098

3,292,624

4,822,648

3, 8 97, 1 4 2

4,894,157

4,058,618

5,158,899

5,700,405

6,899,023

Southampton Entered

Cleared

888,352

813,133

1,420,531

1 ,3 28 ,393

1,613,913

1 ,395,4 86

2,087,277

1,888,030

4,279,052

4,108,063

Hull iEntered

Cleared

1 ,997, 1 3 8

1,655,996

2, 1 5 0, 6 54

1,612,385

2,666,598

2,274,137

2,546,064

2,102,160

3,517,953

3,164,156

Glasgow Entered

Cleared

1,121,700

1,697,662

1, 18 4,537

1,911,739

1 ,454, 860

2,229,574

1, 6 35, 60 9

2,836,462

1,917,144

3,160,916

Newport Entered

Cleared

920,560

1 ,3 16 ,43 0

871,886

1 ,374, 2 37

1,092,068

1 ,5 11 ,3 8 3

1,250,192

1 ,773, 161

1,548,258

2,105,509

Dover Entered

Cleared

789,846

767,724

742,940

734,334

973,074

964,476

2,928,741

2 ,944,774

1,636,530

1,631,751

Middlesbrough Entered

Cleared

833,562

623,967

953,985

875,059

1,096,130

882,156

1,227,017

1,092,958

1,728,385

1,586,148

Blyth 2. . Entered

Cleared

-

-

1,525,727

1,623,00

1,6 94,00 3

1,292,353

,836,503

Sunderland Entered

Cleared

725,859

956,266

730,396

1,002,552

800,027

1,163,310

981,606

1 ,344,999

1,357,201

1,676,777

Swansea 3 Entered

Cleared

565,644

858,215

580,481

931,588

1,018, 148

1 ,4 2 7,9 0 3

635,458

1 ,335, 1 34

1,020,480

1,719,654

Leith. Entered

Cleared

706,491

626,573

887,842

750,257

1,055,291

9$2,309

1,124,281

1, 08 5,734

1,344,898

1,314,361

Grimsby Entered

Cleared

663,513

689,165

763,892

829,837

931,238

960,236

1, 0 94,53 1

1, 0 74,495

1,289,476

1,334,566

Manchester Entered

Cleared

-

317,625

288,001

787,497

595,757

1, 1 33,0 0 3

970,620

1,275,937

1,067,835

1890.

1895,

1900.

1905,

1909..

Tons.

Tons.

Tons.

Tons.

Tons.

Total. .

. .

. Entered

36,835,712

40,001,691

49,9 1 3, 22 3

55, 62 3,974

66,309,519

(Cleared

37,44 8, 1 57

4 0 ,537,4 8 3

5 0, 182 ,439

56,416,760

66,958,163

British

Entered

- Cleared

26 ,777,955

2 7, 1 95, 1 57

2 9, 1 75, 282

2 9,5 16, 6 44

3 2, 1 35,745

32,147,060

35, 200, 8 69

35,762,218

39,661,660

40.102,311

German

S Entered

2, 161 ,53 6

1 ,94 0 ,35 8

2,966,426

4,298,769

6,766,591

Cleared

2,230,419

1,948,284

3,060,782

4,346,284

6,754,026

Norwegian

Entered

2 ,477,93 6

2, 60 4, 0 49

3, 8 39, 602

3,392,216

4,315,870

Cleared

2,522,865

2, 660 ,795

3,821,969

3,387,152

4,308,221

Swedish

Entered

3

783,045

990,728

1,788,844

2,114,028

2,456,144

Cleared

792,767

1,003,634

1,8 08 ,354

2,117,717

2,478,534

Danish

Entered

Cleared

901,819

952,183

961,730

990,006

1,735,288

1 ,759,5 0 9

2,106,717

2,123,830

2,889,986

2,886,731

Dutch

Entered

Cleared

952,695

948,196

1,150,098

1,156,936

1,600,317

1,613,45 0

1,949,161

1 ,957, 10 7

2,272,075

2,294,584

French

Entered

Cleared

834,039

852,935

929,250

909,493

1,417,128

1 ,4 0 5, 2 47

1 ,574,395

1 ,5 8 7,7 62

1,640,466

1,663,197

Spanish

Entered

' ? Cleared

631,629

644,431

645,210

682,184

1,309,915

1,399,332

1,462,488

1,471,300

1,477,199

1,499,319

Belgian

S Entered

Cleared

449,470

423,639

551,513

537,969

804,472

797,134

936,918

920,597

1,355,135

1,357,668

Entered

146,721

323,700

282,152

664,360

274,241

U.S.A.

Cleared

145,212

332,825

277,400

675,096

280,464

Not far from a fresh trebling took place in the course of the next quinquennial period, and at the end of 1850 there were 6621 m. of railways, constructed at the cost of £ 240,270,745.

The construction of railways (especially in England) was undertaken originally by a vast number of small companies, each under separate acts of parliament. But it was soon discovered that there could be neither harmonious nor profitable working of a great many systems, and this led to a series of amalgamations (see under England; Ireland; Scotland).

The number of passengers carried per mile in 1832 was 4860, but before ten more years were past the number of passengers had not only increased in proportion with the opening of new lines, but more than doubled per mile, and, instead of being under 5000, had in 1842 come to be near 12,000. In 1861 the number of passengers carried per mile of railway was 15,988; in 1876 it was 31,928; and in 1900 it was over 52,000.

The two following tables illustrate the further development of railways in the United Kingdom: In 1909 the percentage of working expenses to total receipts was 63 in England and Wales, 57 in Scotland and 62 in Ireland.

Tramways.-An act passed in 1870 to facilitate the construction of tramways throughout the country marks the beginning of their modern development. It led to the laying down of "street railways" in many large towns. According to a return laid before the House of Commons in the session of 1878, the total length of tramways authorized by parliament up to the 30th of June 1877 was 363 m., and the total length opened for traffic 213 m., comprising 125 m. of double lines and 88 m. of single lines. On the 30th of June 1900 there were in the United Kingdom 70 tramway undertakings with 585 m. of line belonging to local authorities, while 107 with 592 m. of line belonged to other than local authorities. The capital ex penditure on the former amounted to £10,203,604, on the latter to £11,532,384.

Years

J ending

une 30.

Miles

open.

Paid-up

Capital.

Gross

Receipts.

Working

Expenses.

Passengers

carried during

year.

1890

948

13,502,026

3,214,743

2,402,800

526,369,328

18 95

982

14,111,521

3,733,690

2,878,490

661,760,461

1900

1117

20,582,692

5,445, 62 9

4, 0 75,35 2

1,065,374,347

1905

2117

51,501,410

9,917,026

6,565,049

2,068,913,226

1909

2526

7 0 ,345, 1 55

12, 6 4 1 ,437

8, 0 45, 6 5 8

2,659,981,136

The development of tramway enterprise in the United Kingdom, as shown by the mileage open, the paid-up capital, gross receipts, working expenses and number of passengers carried, has been as follows 1900, 1,749,804 * Excluding season-ticket holders, whose number in 1880 was 502,174; in and in England and Wales alone, in 1880, 449, 82 3; in 1900, 1,610,754.

Year.

Mileage.

Paid-up

Capital.

Number of

Passengers.*

Traffic Receipts.

Percentage of

Working Expenses

to Receipts.

Total.

Per Mile.

£

£

£

1860

10,433

348,130,127

163,435,678

27,766,622

2,661

47

1865

1 3, 2 9 8

455,47 8, 1 43

251,862,715

35,890,116

2,701

48

1870

1 5,537

5 2 9,9 08, 6 73

33 6 ,545,397

43,4 1 7, 0 7 0

2 ,794

48

1875

16,658

630,223,494

5 06 ,975, 2 34

5 8 ,9 82 ,753

3,54 1

54

1880

17,933

728,316,848

603,885,025

62,961,767

3,511

51

1885

19,169

815,858,055

6 97, 21 3, 0 3 1

66, 6 44,9 6 7

3,477

53

1890

20,073

897,472,026

81 7,744, 0 4 6

7 6 ,54 8 ,347

3, 81 3

54

1895

21,174

1,001,110,221

929,770,909

$1 ,39 6, 0 47

3, 8 44

56

1900

21,855

1,176,001,890

1,142,276,686

98,854,552

4,5 2 3

62

1905

22,847

1,272,601,000

1,199,022,102

105,131,709

4,601

62

1909

23,280

1,314,406,000

1,265,081,000

110,682,266

4,754

62

1909.

England and

Wales.

Scotland.

Ireland.

Mileage of Double or more lines .

Single lines

10,746

5,299

1,580

2,264

670

2,721

£

£

£

Passenger traffic. .

43,9 1 9,7 02

5,080,603

2,204,756

Traffic

Total goods traffic.. .

5 0, 6 47,4 26

6,836,920

1,992,859

Receipts

Including-

Minerals .

24,837,682

3,286,074

281,63}

General merchandise .

2 4, 88 5,494

3, 2 99,5 88

1,392,600

Working expenditure

65,169,619

7,200,173

2,667,796

Net receipts .

37,979,313

5,4 8 9,579

1,667,572

Authorities

-The following publications relating to the United Kingdom are issued annually in London (unless otherwise stated): Finance Accounts; Financial Estimates; Return showing Revenue and Expenditure (England, Scotland and Ireland); National Debt Accounts; National Debt during 60 Years; Local Taxation Returns; Army Estimates; Army Accounts; Army List (quarterly); Navy Estimates; Navy List (quarterly); Royal Commission on Agriculture, Reports (1896); Mineral Statistics; Reports of Inspectors of Mines; Reports on Factories and Workshops; Reports of Inspectors of Fisheries; Return of Fish conveyed inland by rail; Statement of the Trade of the United Kingdom; Statement of the Shipping and Navigation of the United Kingdom; Report of the Postmaster-General. Vital statistics: Reports of the registrars-general respectively for England, for Scotland (Edinburgh), for Ireland (Dublin); Census Reports (decennial, 1901, &c.), ditto; Education: Reports of the Board of Education for England and Wales; Report of the Commissioners of National Education in Ireland; Report of the Committee of Council on Education in Scotland; Electoral Statistics (London, 1905); Statistical Tables relating to Emigration and Immigration; Judicial Statistics of England and Wales, of Scotland, of Ireland; Local Government Reports, ditto; Statistical Abstract for the United Kingdom, in which the most important statistics are summarized for each of the fifteen years preceding the year of issue. Among books may be mentioned the following: Sir W. R. Anson, The Law and Custom of the Constitution (2 vols., 2nd ed., Oxford, 1892-1896); W. J. Ashley (edited by), British Industries (London, 1902); E. G. Boutmy, Le De'veloppement de la constitution et de la societe politique en Angleterre (2nd ed., Paris, 1897). Of this there is an English translation (from 1st ed.) In the next table further details are given for 1909: by I. M. Eaden (London, 1891); Etudes de droit constitutionel, France, Angleterre, Etats-Unis (Paris, 1885; Eng. trans. by E. M. Dicey, London, 1891); Brassey, The Naval Annual (Portsmouth, 1886 onwards); Cassell's Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland (London, 1899); W. L. Clowes and other writers, History of the Royal Navy (London, 1896-1901); W. Cunningham, Growth of English Industry and Commerce (4th ed., London, 1904); A. V. Dicey, Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution (5th ed., London, 1897); R. Donald (edited by) Municipal Year-book (London, annual); S. Eardley-Wilmot, Our Fleet To-day and its Development during the Last Half Century (London, 1900); Hon. J. W. Fortescue, History of the British Army (London, 1906); R. Giffen, Essays in Finance (London, 1880 and 1886); R. von Gneist, Das englische Parlament in tausendj¢hringen Wandel r ungen (Berlin, 1885; translated into English by A. H. Keane, History of the English Parliament, London, 1889); Englische Verfassungsgeschichte (Berlin, 1882; Eng. trans. by P. A. Ashworth, London, 5891); E. Hull, The Coalfields of Great Britain (London, 1905); J. E. T. Rogers, Industrial and Commercial History of England (London, 1892); J. Holt Schooling, The British Trade Book (London, 1908); Sir J. R. Seeley, The Growth of British Policy (2 vols., London, 1895); H. Taylor, The Origin and Growth of the English Constitution (2 vols., London, 1889-1899); A. Todd, Parliamentary Government in England (new ed., revised by S. Walpole, 2 vols., London, 1892).

British Military Forces. The forces of the British Crown may be classed as (a) the regular, or general service, army, together with the Indian army; and (b) the home territorial force; while there are also certain forces controlled by the governments of the various selfgoverning dominions. The home government raises, pays and controls the regular army, its reserves, the territorial force, and some few details such as the militia of the smaller possessions, Indian native battalions employed on imperial service out of India, &c. But the cost of that portion of the regular army which is in India is borne by the Indian government, which is not the case with the regulars serving in other colonies or in the dominions. Consequently the Indian government, unlike the colonial governments, can within limits dispose of the British paid regulars within its sphere.

Regular Arnzy.-The duties of the regular army are to garrison India and overseas colonies, to garrison Great Britain and Ireland, and to find expeditionary forces of greater or less strength for war in Europe or elsewhere. The principles upon which the reorganization of1905-1908was based are: (a) that in peace the army at home must be maintained at such an effective standard that all necessary drafts for the army abroad shall be forthcoming, without undue depletion of the army at home; (b) the home army on mobilization for service should be brought up to war strength by the recall of reservists in sufficient, but not too great, numbers; (c) the wastage of a campaign shall be made good by drafts partly from the remaining army reserve, but above all from the militia, now converted into the special reserve; and (d) the volunteers and yeomanry, reorganized into the territorial force, shall be responsible, with little regular help, for the defence of the home country, thus freeing the regular army at home for general service. The first of these conditions entirely, the second largely, and even indirectly the third and fourth depend upon the recruiting, establishments and terms of service of the regular army. These last are a compromise between the opposite needs of short service, producing large reserves, and long service, which minimizes the seatransport of drafts; they are also influenced by the state of the labour market at any given moment, as recruiting is voluntary. To enable the authorities to deal with these conditions, the secretary of state for war may without special legislation vary the terms of enlistment, not only in general but also for the various arms and branches.

After the South African War, several different terms were tried for the line infantry and cavalry, but these experiments proved that the terms formerly prevailing, viz. 7 years with the colours and 5 in the reserve, were the most convenient. In the Horse and Field Artillery the term is 6 and 6, in the Household Cavalry and the Garrison Artillery 8 and 4, and in the Foot Guards 3 and 9. Engineers and other specialists are recruited on various terms. A certain number, again varying from year to year, almost from month to month, are allowed to engage for the full 12 years with the colours (long service). Thus in 1907-1908, 1551 men were serving on a 12-year colour engagement, 24,856 on a term of 7 years colours and 5 reserve, 3589 on a 6 and 6 term, 3449 on 3 and 9 engagement, 45 2 9 for other terms, out of a total of 37,974 recruits or soldiers signing fresh engagements.

Percentage

Year.

Recruits

offering.

Recruits

approved.

Percentage

approved.

of Recruits

to Strength

of Army.

Oct. 1903-Oct. 1904

89,824

42,041

46.8

14.6

Oct. 1904-Oct. 5905

81,045

35,551

43'9

1305

Oct. 1905-Oct. 1906

8 3, 1 55

36,380

43'5

14

Oct. 1906-Oct. 1907

7 2, 8 55

34,710

47'6

14.25

Oct. 1907-Oct. 1908

77,526

37,222

47'9

54.05

Oct. 1908-Oct. 1909

75, 6 3 0

33,766

44.7

13.6

Strength.

Establishment.

Staff and departments, &c.

3,293

3,392

On regimental strength

Home

128,412

130,714

India

77,866

76,009

Colonies

47,127

44,981

Total. ... .

253,004

253,405

The following figures show the inflow of recruits: The army consists of about 250,000 officers and men of the regular forces on full pay, distributed (October 1909) as follows: By units, it is composed of 3 regiments of Household Cavalry, 7 regiments of Dragoon Guards, 3 of Dragoons, 6 of Lancers and 12 of Hussars (total cavalry, 31 regiments); 4 regiments of Foot Guards of 9 battalions, 51 English and Welsh, to Scottish and 8 Irish line infantry and rifle regiments (total infantry, 149 battalions); the Royal Regiment of Artillery, divided into Royal Horse and Field Artillery, and Royal Garrison Artillery-the R.H.A. consisting of 28 batteries, the R.F.A. of 150 batteries, the R.G.A. of loo companies (told off to garrisons, siege train and heavy field batteries) and 8 batteries mountain guns; the Corps of Royal Engineers, organized into mounted field troops, field companies, fortress, telegraph, railway, searchlight, balloon, wireless companies and bridging train; the Army Service Corps, divided into transport, supply, mechanical-transport and other companies and sections; the Royal Army Medical Corps of 35 companies; the Army Ordnance Corps; the Army Veterinary Corps; Army Post Office Corps (formed on mobilization only) and Army Pay Corps.

In addition, there are the following colonial troops under the home government :-West India Regiment, 2 battalions; Royal Malta Artillery, 2 garrison companies; West African Frontier Force, 2 batteries, 1 garrison company, 1 battalion M.I., 6 battalions infantry; and King's African Rifles (East Africa), 5 battalions, besides the Indian troops in imperial services.

The army reserve, formed of men who have served wit h the colours, consists of four classes. Sections A, B and C consist of men who are fulfilling the reserve portion of their original twelve years' liability. Section A, which receives extra allowances, is liable to be called up in a minor emergency; section B is the general reserve; section C, also part of the general reserve, consists of men who have been sent to the reserve prematurely; section D (which is often suspended) consists of men who at the expiry of their twelve years' engagement undertake a further four years' reserve liability.

Strength and Ages of the Army Reserve (Oct. 1, 1909).

Section.

A.

B C.

D.

Total.

Infantry .

4,051

70,998

9,608

84,657

Cavalry .

-

8,894

1,229

10,123

R.H.

604

1 3, 8 49

1,571

16,024

K.G.A.. .

.

-

7,748

642

8,189

R.E.. .

.

415

4,200

406

5,021

Others. .

.

.

.

427

9,356

558

10,341

5,497

11 5, 0 45

14,014

134,556

Under 30. .

.

98,146

201

98,347

3 3 35

21,730

10,758

32,488

Over 35. .

.

.

.

666

3,055

3,721

120,542

14,014

134,556

The special reserve, converted from the militia, consists of infantry, field and garrison artillery, the Irish Horse (late Yeomanry), engineers, and a few A.S.C. and R.A.M.C. Its object is to make good on mobilization deficiencies (so far as they may exist of ter the calling in of the army reserve) in the expeditionary or regular forces, and to repair the losses of a campaign. It also acts as a feeder to the regular army. Its establishment and strength on the 1st of October 1909 were 90,664 and 69,954 respectively, without counting in the latter figure 6172 militia and militia reserve men not then absorbed into the new organization.

The war organization of the home establishment, with its general and special reserves, aimed at the mobilization and despatch overseas of 6 army divisions, each of 12 battalions in 3 brigades; 9 field batteries in 3 brigades, a brigade of 3 field howitzer batteries, and a heavy battery, each with the appropriate ammunition columns; 2 field companies and telegraph company R.E.; 2 companies mounted infantry; and ambulances, columns and parks. In addition to these 6 divisions, there are "army troops" at the disposal of the commander-in-chief, consisting of two mixed "mounted brigades" (cavalry, mounted infantry, and horse artillery) serving as the "protective cavalry," and of various technical troops, such as balloon companies and bridging train. The "strategical" cavalry is a division of 4 brigades (12 regiments or 36 squadrons), with 2 brigades (4 batteries) of horse artillery, 4 "field troops" and wireless company R.E., and ambulances and supply columns. The peace organization of the regular forces at home conforms to the prospective war organization. In addition to the field army itself, various lines of communication troops are sent abroad on mobilization. These number some 20,000 men, the field army about 135,000, with 492 field guns, 7561 other vehicles and 60,769 horses and mules.

But the first condition of employing all the home regulars abroad is perfect security at home. Thus the pivot of the Haldane system is the organization of the Territorial Force as a completely self-contained army. The higher organization - which the volunteers (q.v.) and yeomanry (q.v.) never possessed - varies only slightly from that in vogue in the regular army. The second line army consists of 14 mixed mounted brigades as protective cavalry and 14 army divisions of much the same combatant strength as the regular divisions, the only important variation being that the artillery consists of 4-gun instead of 6-gun batteries. In addition to the divisions and mounted brigades there are "army troops," of which the most important component is the cyclist battalions, recruited in the different coast counties and specially organized as a first line of opposition to an invader. Affiliated to the territorial force are officers' training corps, cadets, "veteran reserves," and some of the other organizations mentioned below, the Haldane scheme having as its express object the utilization of every sort of contribution to national defence, whether combatant or non-combatant, on a voluntary basis.

The conditions of enlistment and reserve in the territorial force are a four years' engagement (former yeomen and volunteers being however allowed to extend for one year at a time if they desire to do so), within each year a consecutive training in camp of 14-18 days and a number of "drills" (attendances at company and battalion parades) that varies with the branch and the year of service. The minimum is practically always exceeded, and trebled or quadrupled in the case of the more enthusiastic men, and the chief difficulty with which the officers responsible for training have to contend is the fact that no man can be compelled to attend on any particular occasion. Attendance at the camp training, in so far as the claims of men's civil employment do not infringe upon it, is compulsory, and takes place at one time for all - generally the first half of August.

The army troops, divisions and mounted brigades consist of 56 regiments of yeomanry; 14 batteries and 14 ammunition columns R.H.A., 151 batteries and 55 ammunition columns R.F.A., 3 mountain batteries and ammunition column, and 14 heavy batteries and ammunition columns R.G.A.; 28 field companies, 29 telegraph companies, railway battalion, &c., R.E.; 204 battalions infantry (including to of cyclists, the Honourable Artillery Company, and certain corps of the Officers' Training Corps training as territorials); 60 units A.S.C.; 56 field ambulances, 23 general hospitals and 2 sanitary companies R.A.M.C. Told off to the defended seaports are 16 groups of garrison artillery companies and 58 fortress and electric light companies R.E.

Arm or Branch.

Establishment.

Strength.

Officers.

Men.

Officers.

Men.

Yeomanry. .. .

1,345

2 4,7 66

1,193

24,219

R.H. & F.A.. .. .

1,211

32,945

1,015

29,658

R.G.A.. ... .

450

11 ,455

406

9,356

R.E.. ... ..

571

14,660

525

12,896

Infantry

5,679

1 95, 2 97

5, 06 4

173,670

A.S.C. .... .

322

8,562

277

7,577

R.A.M.C.. .. .

1,438

13,664

1,151

11,849

A.V.C.. .. ..

198

14

95

-

Total.. .

11,214

301,363

9,726'

269,225

Establishment and Strength (April I, 1910) The Territorial Force is enlisted to serve at home, but individuals and whole corps may volunteer for service abroad in war if called upon. A register is kept of those who accept this liability beforehand, and about 6000 officers and men had joined it in April 1910.

The force is trained, commanded and inspected exclusively by the military authorities, the regular army finding the higher commanders and staffs. But in accordance both with the growing tendency to separate command and administration and with the desire to enlist local sympathies and utilize local resources, "associations," partly of civilian, partly of military members, were formed in every county and charged by statute with all matters relating to the enlistment, service and discharge of the county's quota in the force, finance (other than pay, &c. in camp), buildings, ownership of regimental property, &c. To these duties of county associations are added that of supervising and administering cadet corps of all sorts (other than officers' training corps), and that of providing the extra horses required on mobilization, not only by the territorial force, but by the expeditionary force as well.

There are several groups of more or less military character which are for various reasons outside war office control. These are: (a) boy's brigades - the Church Lads' Brigade, the London Diocesan Brigade, the Jewish Lads' Brigade, &c.; (b) the Legion of Frontiersmen, an organization intended to enroll for "irregular" service men with colonial or frontier experience; (c) rifle clubs, which exist solely for rifle practice, and have no military liabilities; (d) boy scouts, an organization founded in 1908 by Lieut.-General Sir R. S. S. Baden-Powell.

Command and Administration

The secretary of state for war is the head of the army council, which comprises the heads of departments and is the chief executive authority. These departments (see Staff) are: the general staff; the adjutantgeneral's department; the quartermaster-general's department; the department of the master-general of the ordnance; the civil member's department; and the finance member's department. In addition to these departments, whose heads form the army council itself, there is the very important department of the inspector-general of the forces, whose duties are to ensure by inspection the maintenance of military efficiency and an adequate standard of instruction, &c. This department is thus in the main a complement of the general staff branch. In 1910 the commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean was appointed inspector-general of the overseas forces other than those in India, and the inspector-general in London supervises therefore only the forces in the home establishment. There are, therefore, three single authorities of high rank for the great divisions of the army - the two inspectors-general and the commander-in-chief in India.

The United Kingdom is subdivided into 7 commands and 12 districts, the commands under a lieutenant-general or general as commander-in-chief and the districts under brigadier-generals. The commands are the eastern, southern, western, northern, Scottish, Irish and the Aldershot. London is organized as a separate district under a major-general. In the colonial establishment the principal commands are the Mediterranean (including Egypt) and the South African. Except in South Africa, there are no imperial troops quartered in the self-governing colonies.

Since1904-1905command and administration have been separated and general officers commanding in chief relieved of administrative details by the appointment to their staffs of majorgenerals in charge of administration (see Staff and Officers).

Finance

The army estimates for1910-1911show a total sum of £27,760,000 required for the home and colonial establishments, made up as follows (after deducting appropriations in aid): - 1 Does not include unattached list of officers, 853, or 736 R.A.M.C. officers not available until mobilization.

Regular Army, Pay and Allowances

£8,733,000

Special Reserve

833,000

Territorial Force

2,660,000

Medical Services

452,000

Educational Establishments

147,000

Quartering, Transport, Remounts

1,589,000

Supplies, Clothing

4,397,000

Stores and Ordnance Establishment

533,000

Armament and Engineer Stores

1,482,000

Works, Buildings and Land, &c. .

2,598,000

War Office and Miscellaneous

503,000

Pensions, &c.

3,833,000

The pay of the soldiers has increased since the South African War. Without allowances of any kind, it was in 1910 as follows: Warrant officer, 5s. to 6s. per day; quartermaster-sergeants, coloursergeants, &c., 3s. 4d. to 4s. 6d.; sergeants, 2s. 4d. to 3s. 4d.; corporals, is. 8d. to 2s. 8d.; lance-corporals, is. 3d. to is. 9d.; privates Is. id. to Is. 9d.; boys, 8d. In addition, all receive a messing allowance of 3d. per day, 2d. for upkeep of kit, and most receive "service" or "proficiency" pay at 3d.-6d a day; and engineers, A.S.C. and R.A.M.C. specialist pay at various rates. Officers' pay, without allowances, is for second lieutenants 5s. 3d. to 7s. 8d.; lieutenants, 6s. 5d. to 8s. iod.; captains, I I. 7d. to 15s.; majors, 13s. 7d. to 18s. 6d.; and lieutenant-colonels, 18s. to 24s. 9d.

Indian Army.-The forces in India consist of the British army on the Indian establishment and the Indian native army with its dependent local militias, feudatories, contingents, &c. In addition there is a force of European and Eurasian volunteers, drawn largely from railway employes. The Indian army consists of 138 battalions of infantry, 10 regiments of cavalry, 16 mountain batteries, i garrison artillery company, 32 sapper and miner companies (2 railways companies included). The proportion between British and Indian troops observed since the Mutiny is roughly one British to two native, the Indian army being about 162,000 men. In addition the native army includes supply and transport corps, the medical service, and the veterinary service, officered in the higher ranks by officers of the A.S.C., R.A. M. C. and A.V.C. respectively.

The Indian army is recruited from Mahommedans and Hindus of various tribes and sects, and with some exceptions (chiefly in the Madras infantry) companies, sometimes regiments, are composed exclusively of men of one class. The official F.S. Pocket Book 1908 gives the following particulars: Mahommedans (Pathans of the frontier tribes, Hazaras Baluchis, Moplahs, Punjabi Mahommedans, &c.), 350 infantry companies, 76 squadrons (35% of the army). Hindus (Sikhs, Gurkhas, Rajputs, Jats, Dogras, Mahrattas, Tamils, Brahmans, Bhils, Garhwalis, &c.), 727 companies, 79 squadrons (6 3.3%).

Enlistment is entirely voluntary, and the army enjoys the highest prestige. Service is for three years, but in practice the native soldier makes the army his career and he is allowed to extend up to 32 years. The native cavalry is almost entirely Silandar, in which the trooper mounts and clothes himself, and practically serves without pay. In the infantry, too, the old system of paying men and requiring them to equip, clothe and feed themselves, is in vogue to some extent. There is a reserve of the native army, numbering some 35,000 men. But it is rather a draft to replace wastage than a means of bringing the army up to a war footing in the European way. Indeed, a cardinal principle of the Indian forces, British and native alike, is that the units are maintained in peace at full war effective, often a little above their field strength. Part of the army, nearest the north-west frontier, has even its transport practically in readiness to move at once. The command is in the hands of British officers assisted by native officers, promoted from the ranks. The number of native officers in a unit is equal to that of the British officers.

Besides the regular native army there are: (a) various frontier and other levies, such as the Khyber Rifles and the Waziristan Militia; (b) selected contingents from the armies of the native princes, inspected by British officers, numbering about 20,000 and styled "imperial service troops"; (c) the volunteers, about 32,000 strong; and (d) the military police.

The general organization of the forces is into two armies, the northern and the southern, with headquarters at Rawal Pindi and Poona respectively.

Administration.-Under the governor-general in council the commander-in-chief (himself a member of the council) is the executive authority. Under him in the army department, now divided into higher committees and the headquarter staff, the latter comprising (since the abolition of the military staff department under Lord Kitchener's reorganization) the divisions of the chief of the general staff, the adjutant-general and the quartermaster-general. India has her own staff college at Quetta, and can manufacture rifles, ammunition and field artillery equipment except the actual guns.

The cost of the Indian army, and of the British forces on the Indian establishment, borne by the Indian government in 1909 was £20,558,000.

Regulars only.

Northern

Arm Y

Southern

Arm Y

Total.

British. ... .

40,608

34,143

74,751

Indian Army, white .

1,534

1,512

3,046

native. .

85,189

76,772

161,961

Total. .

86,723

78,284

165,007

Total. ... .

127,331

112,427

239,758

Forces of the Dominions and Colonies.-Lord Kitchener and Sir John French in1909-1910paid visits of inspection to Australia and Canada in connexion with the reorganization by the local governments of their military forces, and a beginning was made of a common organization of the forces of the empire in the colonial military conference of 1909. Without infringement of local autonomy and local conditions, a common system of drill, equipment, training and staff administration was agreed on as essential, and to that end the general staff in London was to evolve into an "imperial general staff." The object to be attained as laid down was twofold; (a) complete organization of the territorial forces of each dominion or colony; (b) evolution of contingents of colonial general-service troops with which the dominion governments might assist the army of Great Britain in wars outside the immediate borders of each dominion. (See BRITISH EMPIRE; AUSTRALIA; CANADA.)


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